弗洛伦斯·诺尔访谈——诺尔的历史

弗洛伦斯·诺尔访谈——诺尔的历史

1957年,弗洛伦斯·诺尔和埃罗·萨里宁

Knoll

Since our founding in 1938,design integrity has been our guiding principle as we offer insight into the way business is changing and into whats possible—now and for the future.

We believe good design is good business.我们对现代设计的承诺已经产生了一个综合的家具产品和纺织品组合,旨在提供持久的价值,并帮助客户塑造他们的想象力和愿景的工作空间。

We have been recognized as a design leader worldwide.我们的产品在各大艺术博物馆展出,其中永久性设计收藏40余件The Museum of Modern Art in New York

“她的手,with their short,未上漆的指甲,是忙碌的人用过的手,有创造力的人,但是这个巨大的祖母绿接龙看起来非常适合在家里保护她的结婚戒指。她很随便地戴着其他的祖母绿,她可能是和它们一起出生的。”—弗吉尼亚·李·沃伦(摘自9月1日,1964年《纽约时报》文章《领导一场办公室革命的女人统治着一个现代设计帝国》

作者:Susan Brandabur

当你研究著名建筑师的工作生涯时,有些人似乎像摩天大楼一样孤独,with nameless assistants blending into the skyline around them.但是佛罗伦萨“蜀”丘,the brilliant American architect,室内空间设计师和家具设计师,有与他人合作的天赋,有识别和促进伟大工作的天赋。

弗洛伦斯·诺尔帮助创造了,and for a time ran.与她可爱的外表和外号形成鲜明对比的是,诺尔家具优雅而刚毅。She assisted in bringing into form some of the most enduring design products of modernist luminaries like Ludwig Mies van der Rohe,Isamu Noguchi,Eero Saarinen和Marcel Breuer,at the same time producing singular interiors and furniture of her own.她的成就对任何人来说都是非凡的,但对于战后美国企业界的一位女性来说,她们是非同寻常的。

Florence Knoll Bassett was born Florence Schust in Saginaw,Mich.,in 1917.

Orphaned at age 12 by the death of her mother Mina (her father,弗雷德里克·Schustdied when she was 5),弗洛伦斯被一位监护人带走,他指导她选择一所女子寄宿学校。

The guardian fatefully chose the Kingswood School,克兰布鲁克教育社区的一部分,in Bloomfield Hills,Mich.,由芬兰建筑师Eliel Saarinen主持。和他的纺织品设计师妻子Loja,Saarinen recognized Shu's talent and brought her under the wing of their family.

克兰布鲁克提出了一个整体的设计方法,佛罗伦萨和她一起进行。在Kingswood,她设计了她的第一座房子,概念上每一个细节都是完整的,at age 14.她继续在克兰布鲁克艺术学院学习建筑,at the Architectural Association in London,and at ITT in Chicago.

In 1943 she was working for Harrison and Abromovitz Architects in New York when she met Hans Knoll,家具制造商。She went to work for Knoll and began the Knoll Planning Unit,公司内部为室内空间规划实践制定标准的设计团队。She married Hans Knoll in 1946 and the company became Knoll Associates.

Hans Knoll

在小山,Florence designed regional showrooms (in New York,San Francisco,Los Angeles,芝加哥和米兰),他们流利地传达了诺尔品牌,并以色彩和伟大的现代风格展示了公司的产品。She is also credited with elevating standards of furniture manufacture to a new level of quality.Her exactitude could be frustrating for those who worked under her,但结果是值得的。

Perhaps most significantly,she brought her relationships with teachers Eliel Saarinen,Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer,and friends Isamu Noguchi,哈里·贝尔托亚和埃罗·萨里宁进入小丘褶皱,著名的是给予他们设计信用,并为他们的产品支付版税,这在家具业是不寻常的。瑞士平面设计师赫伯特·马特,Knoll helped create a series of inventive print advertisements.

In 1947 she established Knoll Textiles.Florence Knoll designed acclaimed office projects for CBS,洛克菲勒家族,看看杂志和康涅狄格人寿保险公司。

In 1955,汉斯·诺尔在出差时死于车祸。人们认为公司会倒闭,但是弗洛伦斯当上了总统,诺尔继续前进。She married banker Harry Hood Bassett in 1958,selling Knoll in 1959,但在公司工作了几年。

Florence retired in 1965,but kept her hand in the design world with projects for a few favored clients.In 2003 she was recognized with a National Medal of Arts,and in 2004,2004年,她退休后为费城艺术博物馆设计了一个自己作品的展览。

策展人凯瑟琳·希辛格(Kathryn Hiesinger)认为自己很荣幸成为舒淇的最后一位客户。“我们的展览空间很小,about 330 square feet.这是一个有问题的空间,long and skinny,被窗户打破了,但是舒驯养了它,使它变得美丽。”海辛格说。"Her solutions were so smart and inventive.工作人员称之为“书箱”。她设计了整个展览,直到最后一个细节。She sent us a list of furniture for the show,illustrated with meticulous color drawings she made of each piece.夫人。为了准备这次演出,巴塞特至少去了费城三次。她所做的一切都是无可挑剔的。”

现在92岁,弗洛伦斯·诺尔·巴塞特受到几代建筑师的尊敬,designers,学生和现代家具收藏家。Knoll International remains a highly respected manufacturer of furniture and textiles,还在制作佛罗伦萨·诺尔的设计。

纽约时报9月1日1964

Woman Who Led an Office Revolution Rules an Empire of Modern Design

弗吉尼亚·李·沃伦

曾几何时,几乎每一位大企业高管,或是在这些问题上为他考虑的任何人,都认为他的办公室必须有淡绿色的墙,而他的办公室又很重,抽屉到地上的桌子必须放在角落里。

Then along came a woman who showed the executives that they could be just as impressive against a background of neutral or even white walls,sometimes with one wall in a strong primary color,如果他们把桌子挪到合理的位置,他们的地位不会受到影响,节省空间的foursquare的位置。

The woman was young,黑眼睛,dark-haired and slender,with the clothes sense of a model,the training of an architect,unfailingly good judgment,还有舒的绰号。她还告诉高管们,办公桌可以是轻便的、平易近人的,服务于它的目的,而不像一个雕刻红木堡垒。

That revolution in the office took place 20 years ago and Florence Schust (Schu) Knoll,the woman who led it,is today the single most powerful figure in the field of modern design.

The worldwide Knoll empire — Knoll Associates,公司,诺尔纺织品公司,和丘国际,Ltd.-在美国设有14个办事处,在国外设有21个办事处,是迄今为止规模最大、最负盛名的组织,织布机作为家具设计师的一块乐土,纺织品和附件。

要被诺尔接受就得把它做出来。And while Knoll has a committee to pass upon submissions,是佛罗伦萨·诺尔,as director of design,who makes the final decision.

Furnishing Offices

She is now engaged in designing and furnishing the thousand or so offices in the new CBS building at 51 West 52d Street where occupancy is to begin in December.Her job embraces everything from the choice of wall coverings—sometimes felt or tweed for the sake of acoustics—to ash trays,图片和门把手。

所有的家具和面料都将来自诺尔,由佛罗伦萨诺尔和已故的埃罗萨里宁主宰。(This was Saarinen's last building.)

她让人们看到,织物的纹理可以像印刷品一样有趣(她不喜欢印刷品)和桌子上的钢腿,椅子和沙发既优雅又优雅。

But Florence Knoll still considers,she said recently,the straightening of the cater-cornered desk and the inevitable cater-cornered table behind it her "single biggest struggle.

It marked,in a way,the beginning of an era.从那时起,办公室——或者任何其他房间——都可以被设计而不是装饰。

"I am not a decorator, she said emphatically in the field.“我唯一装饰的地方是我自己的房子。

她不认为自己是建筑师,要么。一个当权者,however,说弗洛伦斯·诺尔无疑是世界上最成功的女建筑师。

What seems to distinguish her,最重要的是,这可能与她的训练无关,architectural or otherwise.这是她一贯的品味。每当她的名字出现在设计或建筑领域,几乎可以肯定的是,这个传奇属性。

任何相信指路星的人,it would be tempting to believe that Florence Knoll has always had one.Born as an only child in Saginaw,Mich.,she was orphaned by the time she had finished elementary school.(她父亲是工程师。)

年轻的" Schu " Schust的监护人,一个银行家,把她送到布卢姆菲尔德山上的金斯伍德,the girls' school that Eliel Saarinen had designed as part of the Cranbrook Foundation.Saarinen was then president of the foundation's Academy of Art and his son,Eeroseven years older than Schu,was studying architecture at Yale.

While other girls in Kingswood were inclined to regard the building merely as a center for the school's activities,小舒对大楼本身很着迷。When the Saarinens learned of this interest they virtually adopted her and she went with them on their pilgrimages to Finland summer after summer.她和Eliel Saarinen一起开始学习建筑。

Then,用她自己的话来说,she "sampled various schools in Europe before settling down at the Architectural Association in London (the oldest school of architecture in the world).在她第三年,第二次世界大战开车送她回家,她去芝加哥伊利诺伊理工学院攻读学位,where Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was professor of architecture.她说现在她从他身上学到的比从任何人身上学到的都多,and in fewer words.

后来,她说服他把他在巴塞罗那的椅子复制给诺尔。Originally designed for the Barcelona Exposition in 1929,it is one of the true aristocrats of the Knoll line.弗洛伦斯·舒斯特曾在几位纽约建筑师的办公室工作,当她遇到托尔时,她与哈里森和阿布拉莫维茨在一起。英俊,汉斯•诺尔动态他从德国经由英国来到这里,并于1938年以他的名义成立了一家家具公司,旨在促进现代设计并创造自己的市场。(It is generally agreed that,as an impresario and promoter of the avant-garde in his field,he has never been equaled.)

1944年他和弗洛伦斯·舒斯特结婚时,she entered the concern as a partner and set up the Knoll Planning Unite to handle the company's interior—designing operations,她自己领导这个单位。

建筑师名册

他们最伟大的成就之一是建筑师埃罗·萨里宁的作品,Marcel Breuer,Pierre Jeanneret,Hans Bellman,设计家具。Once Florence Knoll asked Saarinen to make a chair "like a great big basket of pillows that I can curl up in, and his womb chair was the result.

The Knolls staked Harry Bertoia,雕刻家,to two years in a studio barn in Pennsylvania,to see if,after his work with metals,他能生产家具。His wire chairs were the answer.

The textile division was established.And a design development unit was set up to give would-be designers a chance to show what they could do.From this cradle of design have come such creations as the petal table by Richard Schultz.

When the Knolls were asked by the State Department to produce furniture for American personnel abroad,他们从那里继续组建诺尔国际公司。The 21 offices scattered around the globe—five major companies,16个被许可方只提供国际范围的一点线索。There are,例如,仅在法国各省和非洲就有约30家特许经销商。

1955年汉斯·诺尔在一场车祸中丧生。188滚球投注His widow succeeded him as president of the Knoll enterprises.The following year she brought out the Saarinen pedestal tables and chair.

在1957年,among other projects she took on the job of doing the executive offices of the First National Bank in Miami,第二年她嫁给了哈里·胡德·巴塞特,一名银行职员(他现在是行长)和一名佛罗里达州牧场主。他和她年龄相仿,像她自己一样had been born in Michigan.

结婚一年

结婚一年后,她卖掉了诺尔公司,Knoll Textiles and Knoll International—to Art Metal Construction Company,允许她在佛罗里达多呆些时间的举动She kept the presidency of all three Knoll entities,though.

By 1960 Florida was beckoning more insistently than ever and she resigned the presidencies,but she is still very much in charge of design for all Knoll enterprises.

Today Florence Knoll Bassett leads the kind of life that many women might dream of,如果他们有足够大的梦想并且不对工作过敏的话。

She and her husband live on Sunset Island,off Miami,where there is a studio workshop on the grounds for her.他们在纽约也有一套公寓,在东66街200号,在佛蒙特州找个地方。

Florence Knoll's clothes are either cus188滚球投注tom-made—Balenciaga in Paris,Joan Morse of A la Carte in New York—or are jeans or Lillies or things from Jax.

她的手,with their short,未上漆的指甲,是忙碌的人用过的手,有创造力的人,但是这个巨大的祖母绿接龙看起来非常适合在家里保护她的结婚戒指。她还戴着其他的祖母绿耳环,一颗镶有钻石的花喷洒在三串珍珠上,她可能与它们一起诞生。

A Slight Figure

比平均身高稍低,骨瘦如柴,她,在48岁the slight figure and quick movements of a schoolgirl,但这种平静是一个女人习惯于掌控一个局面。

她经常被描述为令人惊艳或美丽的术语,灵感来自于内在的光芒和动画,而不是非常微妙但稍微不规则的特征。她的情报显示。

In Florida,她这些天早上8:30开始工作。微型,drawn-to-scale mock-ups of the various floors in the CBS building.早上几乎肯定会在纽约办公室打几个小时的电话。

Lunch,放在水池旁边的托盘上,只需要半个小时。Then she works until 5:30 or 6,之后有三组网球和一个游泳与她的丈夫。

In New York her days are spent at the Knoll offices and showroom,320 Park Avenue.(任何有装饰师陪同的人都可以参观展厅)。If her husband cannot join her she usually lunches alone.

She reads biography or history as she eats.她不喜欢小说,saying,“我只对真实的事物感兴趣。”

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